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 发表于 2007-10-03 18:30:31    关注度(5410) | 回贴数(9)  打印   字体大小:|  楼主#

新编2007通读学习(连载41-45课)


新编2007通读学习(连载41-45课)


四十一、How I Lost Four Ounces in Three Weeks(我怎样在三周里减了四盎司体重)
1. "I'm not fat," I told my neighbor, "but I would like to lose a little—about ten pounds."
我对邻居说:“我不算胖,但是我想减点体重—大约10磅左右吧。”
fat=胖的;neighbor=邻居; would like to=愿意;lose =失去;pound=磅;
2. "Ten pounds?" he said. "That's easy. I lost 20 pounds just by running every day."
2、他回答说:“减10磅?那不费事。我只是每天跑步,就掉了20磅了。”
every day=每天
3. That's when I made up my mind. I would run, too. I'd run on Willow Road, which goes by the end of our block. And I'd outfit myself in a pair of white shorts, sneakers and a sweat shirt. I'd have the right clothes, so I wouldn't look silly.
3、我就是从那时起下定决心的。我也要跑步,我可以在柳条街上跑步。那条街是我们街尽头处的横街,我得买一条白短裤,一双运动鞋和一件圆领长袖运动衫打扮一下,我穿上合适的服装,就不会显得傻气了。
made up my mind=我下决心;Willow Road=柳条街;go by =(从...旁)走过;the end of block=街区尽头; outfit =装备; a pair of=一双;shorts=短裤;sneakers=运动鞋; sweat shirt=运动衫; right clothes=合适的衣服;silly=傻气.
  4. To begin with, I decided to run up Willow Road as far as the Emersons' house. That was about a mile.
4、我决定开始时跑到柳条街上埃默生家的房子那儿。大约有一英里远。
To begin with=首先,;run up =跑到; as far as=远到; the Emersons' house=埃默生家的房子
5. By the time I got to the end of our block, my legs had turned to stone. And I felt as if somebody had lit a campfire in my chest! I limped on for another hundred yards. The thing to do, I decided, was to stop as soon as I came to a good place for a rest. At once I said to myself, "This looks like a good place !" And I fell, panting, to the earth.   
5、我跑到我们这条街尽头的时候,腿像石头一样又硬又重。我觉得好像有人在我的胸膛里点了一堆篝火!我又跛着向前跑了100码。我想,这时该做的事是一旦找到一个适于休息的地方就停下来休息。我马上对自己说:“这儿看上去是个好地方!”就气喘吁吁地瘫倒在地上。
my legs=我的腿; turn to=变成; stone=石头; felt=觉得; as if=好像; lit =light的过去分词,点着; campfire=篝火;chest=胸膛; limp=跛行; hundred yards=100码; as soon as=一…就; At once=马上;look like =像….;fell =fall 的过去时,倒下; panting=喘气的; the earth=地上.  
6. After some time, I sat up. "You're out of shape," I told myself. "You've got to work up to things bit by bit. Give yourself time!"
6、过了一会,我坐了起来。我告诫自己,“你久不锻炼,竞技状态不佳,得慢慢加码才行。给自己一点时间吧!”
After some time=过了一会; sit up=坐了起来; out of shape=不成样子;have got to =必须做.... ;work up to=逐渐达到; bit by bit=一点一点;
7. I stood up and walked home.
7、我站起身,走着回家了。
stand up=站起来;walk home=走回家.
  8. Every morning for three weeks, Mondays through Fridays, I burst from my house and ran toward the Emerson place. I went a bit further every time. Weekends I rested up. Finally, I decided that I was ready to run the whole mile. Of course, I'd stop a few times along the route to rest.
8、在三周的时间里,从周一到周五的每天早晨我都从家门冲出,向埃默生家方向跑去,每天将距离拉长一点。周末我就休息。我终于决定可以跑完这一英里的里程了,当然,中途我得停下来休息几次。
burst=冲; toward=向; further=更进一步; every time=每次; Weekends=每个周末; finally=终于; be ready to=预备; whole=完整; Of course=当然; a few=少许; time=次;along=沿着; the route=路线;
9. I made the big push on Saturday. That was a mistake. I had forgotten that the neighborhood children would not be in school that day.   

9、星期六我发起了猛攻。那是一个错误的决定。我忘记了街坊的孩子们那天不上学。
the big push=大攻击; mistake=错误;neighborhood =街坊; in school=在求学  
  10. I was no more than halfway up the block when I sensed that I had an audience. There were all the children, standing on their front lawns staring at me. I waved. Most likely, they were admiring my brisk pace. Then I learned the awful truth. As I turned onto Willow Road, a half-dozen eight-year-olds ran out and settled into a steady trot beside me.
10、我还没跑完我们街道的一半,就感觉到我吸引了一批观众。所有的孩子们都站在家门前的草坪上注视着我。我向他们挥手致意。我想他们很可能是在羡慕我轻快的步伐。后来我才了解到糟糕的事实。我向柳条街拐去的时候,跑出来六个八岁的孩子,他们在我身边稳步小跑起来。
no more than=只是; halfway=半途; sense=感觉; audience=观众; front=前面; lawn=草坪; stare at =凝视;wave=(挥手)致意; Most likely=很可能; admiring=羡慕;brisk pace=轻快的步伐; learne=了解;awful=糟糕的; truth=事实;As=当; turn onto=转向;a half-dozen eight-year-olds=六个八岁的(孩子); run out=跑出; settle into =安排;a steady trot=稳稳小跑;
  11. "Hey, mister," said one, "my little brother can run faster than this, and he's only six."
11、一个小孩子对我说:“嗨,先生,我小弟弟跑得比这还快,他只有六岁。”
mister=先生
12. "Oh, yeah!" I barked. "When he's as old as .. "But there my air ran out. I stopped talking in order to save my breath.
12、我大声说:“呵,是吗?等他长到像我一样年纪……”可是这时我喘不过气了。为了省口气,我只好不说了。
yeah=是; bark=大声;as old as=一样年纪air run out=出气; in order to=为了; save my breath=省口气.
  13. We paced onward. Up ahead, I could see a shady maple tree, and ideal rest stop. Sweat dripped into my eyes as I pushed toward the tree. Then, just as the shade was within reach, a small voice said, "Hey, mister, we'll race you!"
13、我们向前跑去。我能看到前方有一棵树影浓密的枫树,那儿是一个理想的休息地点。我向那棵树推进,汗水流进了我的眼睛,这时,就在我要到达那棵树底下的时候,一个孩子小声说:“嗨,先生,我们跟您比谁跑得快!”
pace=踱步 ; onward=向前; ahead=在前方; shady=成荫的; maple tree=枫树; ideal =理想; Sweat =汗;drip into=滴进; push=推进; toward=向; within=在…之内; reach=范围;lvoice=声音; race =比赛;
14. The eight-year-olds tore out in front of me and were soon out of sight. My spirit was broken. I staggered off the road into a clump of underbrush and dropped like a sack of bricks.   
14、那几个八岁的孩子在我面前飞奔起来,很快就跑得无影无踪了。我的斗志全丧失了,我蹒跚着从街道上走下来,进到一丛树林中,像一袋子砖头似的瘫在地上。
tore out=tear过去时,飞奔; in front of=面前; soon=不久; out of sight=在看不见的地方; spirit=精神;broken=削弱; stagger=蹒跚; clump =土块; underbrush=丛林 ; drop=使跌倒;a sack of bricks=一袋子砖,brick=砖;   






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 发表于 2007-10-03 18:30:45  1#

15. I was still resting there ten minutes later when I heard children's voices.   
15、10分钟过去了,我还坐在那儿休息,这时我听到孩子们的声音,
ten minutes =10分钟; children's voices=孩子们的声音.
16. "They must have caught him," one voice said.   
16、一个孩子说:“他们一定超过他了。”
caught=catch的过去分词,赶上
17. "Yes," another replied. "He did all right for an old man, though. He must have run the whole two miles from the mental hospital."   
17、一个孩子答道:“一定,但是对于一个老年人来说,他跑得不算慢。他一定是从精神病院那儿一直跑过来的,已经跑了整整两英里了。”
reply=答; all right=好; the mental hospital=精神病院
18. Still I wouldn't give up. The best way to run without an audience, I decided, was to run after dark.
18、尽管如此,我还是不肯放弃跑步,我断定要想不吸引观众,最好是在天黑以后跑。
Still=尽管如此;give up=放弃; dark=天黑.
19. "Well, enjoy yourself," my wife said. "I've got to drive Andy to his trumpet lesson."   
19、妻子对我说:“你玩你的吧,我得开车送安迪去学吹小号了。”
Well=嗯; enjoy=享受...的乐趣;have got to =必须做.... ;drive to=开车去; trumpet=小号; lesson=课  
20. I set out into the dark, sure that I would finally reach the Emersons'. I had just turned the corner when something the size of a watermelon shot out at me. It began barking and wouldn't stop. It was the Barts' bulldog. I shouted and sent him back to the Barts' front lawn, but I could feel a rising fear. After all, there were lots of dogs in our neighborhood.
20、我跑进夜色之中,我坚信这一次我终于能跑到埃默生家那儿了。我刚刚拐过弯去,就有一个像西瓜那么大的东西向我冲来。它开始狂吠,不肯停下,它是巴特家的斗牛狗。我叫喊着把它赶回巴特家门前的草坪上,但是我感到内心里有一种不断增长的恐惧。我们街区里毕竟是有许多狗。
set out=出发; sure =确信; reach =到达;the Emersons'=埃默生家; corner=拐角; the size of a watermelon=西瓜那么大; shot out =冲向; bark=狂吠; wouldn't stop=不肯停下; the Barts' bulldog=巴特家的斗牛狗; shout=喊叫;send back=退回; lawn=草坪; rising =上升; After all=毕竟; lots of=许多;
21. My hunch was right. Two minutes later I set off the Abels' boxer. He circled around me, barking, and refused to leave. Next it was the O'Briens poodle and then a strange sheep dog.   
21、我的预感没有错,两分钟以后,我引来了艾贝尔斯家的拳师狗,它围着我绕来绕去,狂吠着,不肯离去。接着奥布赖恩家的狮子狗来了,后来又来了一只陌生的牧羊狗。
hunch =预感; set off=引起; the Abels' boxer=艾贝尔斯家的拳师狗; circle=环绕; barking=狂吠着;refuse=拒绝;leave=离开; the O'Briens poodle=奥布赖恩家的狮子狗; strange=陌生; sheep dog=牧羊狗.  
22. I was nervous, but I led the parade onward. Once in a while I'd say, "Nice fella!" to nobody in particular. Then a huge collie came bounding out of a driveway. I had heard once that collies love children. I pointed to my shorts and trotted on.   
22、我精神紧张,但是仍率领着这支队伍前进。我偶尔并不特别冲着谁地说一声:“好狗!”这时一头巨大的柯利牧羊犬从车道上跳着跑了过来。我曾听说过那头大柯利牧羊犬喜欢孩子。于是我指了指我的短裤,继续向前跑去。
Nervous=精神紧张; lead=领导; parade=游行; Once in a while=偶尔;fella=伙计;nobody=谁也不; in particular=特别; huge =巨大;collie=柯利牧羊犬; bound=跳; out of a driveway=从车道上过来; pointed to=指向; trot on=继续小跑
23. What did it, finally, was the Emersons' Great Dane. That dog is the size of a pony and has jaws like an alligator. They call him Cuddles!   
23、最后,真正吓坏了我的是埃默生家的丹麦大狗,那条狗像一头小矮马一样大,而且它的嘴长得像短吻鳄的一样,埃默生家的人管这条狗叫宝贝儿!
the Emersons' Great Dane=埃默生家的丹麦大狗; the size of a pony=小矮马一样大; jaws=口; alligator=鳄; Cuddles=拥抱
  24. Well, I made it to the Emersons' driveway. I jogged in glory across the lawn. I even had my foot on the porch step when Cuddles burst from his doghouse like a fire engine answering an alarm. The next instant, the whole parade was tearing back down Willow Road. And I was bringing up the rear.
24、我总算跑到埃默生家的车道了。我得意洋洋地缓步跑过草坪。宝贝儿像救火车听到了警报似的从它的狗窝里冲出来时,我甚至已经踏到埃默生家前门廊的台阶上了。说时迟,那时快,整个队伍折了回来,沿着柳条街跑回去,而我却为这支队伍殿后。
Well=哎; make it=达到预定目标;the Emersons' driveway=埃默生家的车道; jog=漫步 ;glory =光荣; lawn=草坪; foot=走在..上; the porch step=门廊的台阶,porch门廊; Cuddles=拥抱; burst冲; doghouse=狗窝; fire engine=救火车; answering =应答的; alarm=警报; The next instant=紧接着; the whole parade =整个游行; tear=飞奔; bring up=退出; the rear=后面.
25. Halfway home, I remembered that Cuddles was usually chained to his doghouse, so I slowed down. However, I was exhausted when I reached home, and I flung myself down on the front steps to recover.   
25、往回跑了一半以后,我才想起来宝贝儿通常是被用铁链拴在狗窝上的,所以我放慢了脚步,然而我跑到家的时候,还是筋疲力尽了。我一下子坐到前台阶上,想恢复一下。
Halfway =半途; remember=回忆起; chain=用链条拴住; slow down=慢下来; exhaust=耗尽I flung=fling的过去时,嘲笑;; on the front steps=坐到前台阶上; recover=恢复.
  26. Andy was standing by the garage with his trumpet. He and his mother had just got back from his lesson. 26、安迪正拿着小号站在车库旁边。他和他母亲刚从他上课的地方回来。
garage =车库; trumpet=小号 got back=回来;
27. "Gee, Dad," he said excitedly, "did we see the craziest thing on the way home! Some old man in a white bathing suit was chasing a pack of dogs down Willow .. "Then his eyes fell on my clothes. A puzzled look mixed with fear came over his face. "I guess I'd better go practice my trumpet, huh, Dad!" He did not stay for an answer.
27、他兴奋地对我说:“哎呀,爸爸,我们在回家的路上可看到了一件极其古怪的事儿!一个穿着白色游泳衣的老头子沿着柳条街追赶一群狗……”然后他的目光落到了我的衣服上,他的脸上显出一种掺杂着恐惧的困惑表情。“我想我最好去练吹号了,对不对,爸爸?”他不等我回答,就离开了。
Gee=惊讶时所发声音; Dad爸爸; excitedly=兴奋地;the craziest thing=最疯狂; bathing suit=游泳衣; chase=追赶; a pack of dogs=一群狗; fall on=落到; my clothes=我的衣服; A puzzled look mixed with fear =混合一种掺杂着恐惧的困惑表情,puzzle困惑,mix with=和…混合; guess=猜测; had better =最好;practice=练习; huh=哼!, 哈!;
28. In spite of it all, I might have kept on running, but that evening I climbed onto the scales. I wanted to see how much lighter I was after three weeks' work. I had lost four ounces. I could have lost more than that by letting Cuddles chew on me for a few seconds!  
28、尽管发生了这一切,我本还可以继续跑步的。但是,那天晚上我站到了磅秤上,想知道经过三周的跑步锻炼,我的体重减轻了多少,我减轻了四盎司。如果让宝贝儿把我咬上几秒钟的话,我都能减掉比这多一些的体重!
In spite of=尽管; keep on=继续; climb onto =攀登上; the scales=磅秤; three weeks' work=三周的锻炼. ounces=盎司; more than=更多; let=让; chew on=咬上; a few seconds=几秒钟






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 发表于 2007-10-03 18:30:52  2#

四十二、The Versatile Lead Pencil(万能的铅笔)
  1. The lead pencil is one of the most used pieces of merchandise in the world. It is the simplest, most convenient and least expensive of all writing instruments.
1、铅笔是这个世界上使用的最多的商品之一。在所有的书写工具中,它最简单,最方便,最便宜。
Versatile=万能的; The lead pencil=铅笔; merchandise=商品; the simplest=最简单; convenient=方便的; least=最少; expensive=昂贵的; instruments= 器具;
  2. Perhaps the most surprising thing about the lead pencil is that it is not lead at all. And it is not a pencil. The "lead" is actually graphite from the Greek word "to write." The word "pencil" is from Latin. The first pencils were fine or stiff brushes of hair.
2、可能关于铅笔最让人吃惊的事情是它根本就不是铅做的,而英语PENCIL也不是笔的意思。所谓的铅实际上是石墨,英语的“LEAD”源自希腊语的“写”。英语中的“PENCIL”源自拉丁语,是指用毛制作的细致的硬刷子。
Perhaps=可能; the most surprising thing=最让人吃惊的事情; lead pencil=铅笔;lead =铅;at all=根本; pencil=铅笔; actually=实际的; graphite=石墨; Greek=希腊语; Latin=拉丁语; fine=细;stiff=僵直的; brushes of hair=毛刷子
3. American pencil makers turn out their product by the millions. Probably there is no more useful article in the world. As one wise person remarked: “Everything begins with a pencil. Whether it's a pin or a battleship, it is first rendered with a pencil."
3、美国的铅笔制造商生产了数以百万计的铅笔。在这个世界上可能没有比铅笔更有用的东西了。因为一个智者曾经这样评述“一切都开始于一支铅笔,无论它是一个别针还是一艘战舰,它的第一个表述都来自一支铅笔。”
 maker=制造商; turn out=生产; product=产品; Probably=很可能; article=物品 ;wise=聪明的;person =人;remark=陈述; pin=别针; battleship=战舰; render=呈递;
4. There is a pencil for every purpose. In fact, the industry now supplies 370 different types and styles in more than 70 different colors and in 18 degrees of hardness.
一支铅笔可以用于不同的书写目的。事实上,工业界现在提供着370种不同种类不同风格、超过70种不同颜色、18种不同硬度的铅笔。
Purpose=目的;In fact=事实; industry=工业; supply=供给; 370 different types=370种不同类型];style=风格; degrees=度; hardness=硬.
  5. Some write clearly on slippery surfaces, such as glass and plastic. Surgeons use a special pencil for outlining the operation area on the patient's skin, and packing-plants use another type to write identification on sides of beef. There is even a special electric pencil used for tests checked by electronic machines.
5、某些铅笔可以在光滑的表面诸如玻璃、塑料上清晰书写。外科医生使用一种特殊的铅笔在病人的皮肤上勾勒出手术区域。包装厂使用另外一种类型的铅笔在牛肉的侧面写上识别号码。甚至有一种用来协助电子仪器进行测试的特殊的电子笔。
 clearly=清晰地; slippery=光滑的; surfaces=表面; such as =例如;glass=玻璃; plastic=塑料; Surgeon=外科医生; special=特别的; for outlining=轮廓;operation area=手术区域; patient=病人;skin=皮肤;and packing-plants =包装厂,pack包装;type=类型; identification=身份证明; beef=牛肉; even=甚至; special=特别的; electric=电的; tests=测试;check=检查; electronic machine=电子仪器.
  6. There are many novelty pencils. Some have the Ten Commandments, calendars or the multiplication table on them. Some are in the shape of umbrellas, canes, baseball bats and traffic signals. One may be 12 feet long, while others are only 1/2 inch.
6、还有许多新颖的铅笔。有的上面有(基督教的教条的)十诫、日历或者乘法表。有的铅笔被做成雨伞、手杖、棒球、甚至交通信号灯的样子。有的可能长达12英尺,而另有一些只有半英寸长。
Novelty=新奇; Ten Commandments=十诫; calendar=日历; multiplication table=乘法表,multiplication乘法 ;on them. in the shape of =以...的形状;umbrella=雨伞;cane=手杖;baseball=棒球; bat=蝙蝠;traffic signals=交通信号灯; 12 feet long=12英尺长; inch=英寸;
  7. One recent novelty is a pencil with paper in it. A small roll of paper fits in the center of the pencil and is drawn out through a slit in the side. It’s just the thing for those who are always looking for a scrap of paper.
7、最近的一种新奇铅笔,里面有一卷纸。小小的一卷纸恰好放在铅笔的中央部分,纸可以通过在铅笔边的缝抽出来。它适用于那些总是需要小纸片的人。
  Recent=最近的; novelty=新奇; roll=卷;fit=适合的; center=中央;draw out=抽出; slit=裂缝; look for=寻找; a scrap of paper=小纸片,scrap小片;
  8. A popular idea is that a check, will, or other legal paper written in pencil is not legal. This is not true. Any legal document which does not specify otherwise can be legally signed in pencil.
8、一般认为用铅笔签署的支票或其它法律性文件是不合法的。事实并不是这样。任何法律文件只要没有明确指出,都可以用铅笔签署。
 A popular idea=一般认为; check=支票; will=遗嘱;legal paper=法律文件; written =书写; legal=合法的; Any legal document=法律文件; specify=指定;otherwise=否则; legally=合法地; sign=签署;
  9. By one means or another, man has been writing for thousands of years. The Greeks and Romans used metallic lead for drawing faint lines. But it was not until around 1400 A.D. that graphite, the main part of the modern pencil, first appeared. And for a long time it was used without any covering.
9、无论怎样,人类数千年来一直在书写。古希腊和古罗马人使用金属铅来画暗淡的线。但是直到公元1400年,现代铅笔的主要部分石墨才被发现,并且在相当长一段时间,都是用没有木头外套的石墨直接书写。
by one means or another=无论怎样; man =人类; Roman=古罗马人 ; metallic=金属的;lead =铅; draw=画; faint=暗淡的;line=线; not until =直到…才…;graphite=石墨; the main part of the modern pencil=现代铅笔的主要部分;appear=出现; for a long time=很久以来; without=没有;covering=加套
not until直到…才…,如下例句
He did not go until night.
他直到夜里才走。
It was not until yesterday that I noticed it.
直到昨天我才注意到这件事。
  10. About a century and a half later, in 1564, a high wind blew over a heavy oak tree near Cumberland, England. The earth revealed a slab of black rock which was actually a huge deposit of almost pure graphite. Shepherds used it to brand their sheep. George II controlled the graphite by declaring it a crime to ship it out of the country.
10、大约一个半世纪之后,也就是1546年,在英国坎伯兰郡附近,一场大风吹倒了一棵大橡树,一层厚厚的黑色岩石在地表显露出来,这实际上是一块巨大的几乎纯净的石墨矿藏。当地的牧羊人用它给自己的羊打标记。乔治二世为了控制石墨开采,宣告用船运石墨出国是一种犯罪。
 a century and a half=一个半世纪; high wind=疾风; blow=吹; a heavy oak tree=一棵大橡树; Cumberland=坎伯兰郡;England=英国; The earth =泥土;reveal=显露; slab=厚板;black=黑; rock=岩石; actually=实际的;huge=巨大的;deposit=沉积物,这里指“矿藏”; pure=纯净; graphite=石墨; Shepherd=牧羊人; brand=打标记; sheep=羊; George II =乔治二世;control=控制; declar声明; crime=罪行; to ship =用船运输;out of=离开






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仲夏
  
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 发表于 2007-10-03 18:30:58  3#

 11. This graphite could be used in its natural state for writing. Seeing the find as a rich prize, merchants cut it into sticks. They sold it for writing purposes. By present-day standards, however, it was far from satisfactory for writing. For one thing, the graphite's hardness could not be changed.
11、这种石墨可以在自然状态下用来书写。这个发现被看作财富的奖励,商人们把石墨切割成棒状,当成书写工具来卖。然而,按照今天的标准,它还远未达到书写的要求。比如说当时石墨的硬度是不能改变的。
graphite=石墨; natural state=自然状态;a rich prize=财富的奖励, merchant=商人; cut into=切割成;stick=棒; purpose=目的; standard=标准的; present-day=今天的; however=然而; far from=远未; satisfactory=令人满意的; For one thing=首先;the graphite's hardness=石墨的硬度; change=改变;
  12. Grinding low grades of graphite to remove impurities, pencil makers elsewhere found difficulties. Their problem was to bind the black powder together again so it would be hard enough to serve as a writing instrument.
12、对于各地的铅笔制造者来说,碾磨碎低品质的石墨以去掉里面的杂质,是十分困难的。它们的难题是如何重新组合这些黑色的粉末,使它成为有足够硬度的书写工具。
Grinding=磨(碎); low grades of graphite=低品质的石墨,grade等级; remove=移走; impurity=杂质; elsewhere=在别处;difficulty=困难; bind=捆绑; black =黑色;powder=粉末;; together=一起; hard enough =足够硬度; serve =服务; a writing instrument=书写工具
  13. Napoleon Bonaparte had a finger in the development of the modern pencil industry. Cut off from English pencils. He was stuck with his own impure French graphite. Never one to accept second best, Napoleon hired Nicholas Conte to solve the problem.
13、波拿巴?拿破仑影响了现代铅笔工业的发展。由于来自英国的铅笔供应被切断,他被限制只能使用他的不纯净的法国石墨上。他从不接受次好,于是拿破仑雇佣了尼古拉斯?康特来解决这个问题。
  Napoleon Bonaparte=波拿巴?拿破仑; finger=参与; the development of the modern pencil industry=现代铅笔工业的发展; Cut off=切断; was stuck with=被...缠住无法摆脱; impure=不纯的; graphite=石墨; Never=决不; accept=接受; Napoleon=拿破仑; hire=雇用] ;Nicholas Conte=尼古拉斯?康特; solve=解决;
  14. Conte found the answer in 1795.By mixing refined graphite powder with clay, then heating it, he produced a firm hard lead. German researchers later perfected the method. The lead pencil was launched on its way to general use.
14、1795年,康特找到了问题的答案。把经过精炼的石墨粉末混合以泥土,然后进行加热烧结,他生产出了牢固而坚硬的“铅”。德国的研究员其后又完善了这一方法。铅笔向着通用性发展。
14. Conte=康特;mix=混合;; refine=精炼;graphite powder=石墨粉; clay=粘土; heat=把......加热; firm=牢固的; hard lead=硬铅; researchers=究人员; perfect=完美的;;method=方法; lead pencil=铅笔; launch=发射; general use=通用
  15. William Monroe, the Concord, Massachusetts, cabinet-maker, made the first pencils in the United States. The War of 1812 halted imports of pencils. Monroe developed machinery to make wooden slats. Each one was grooved to half the thickness of a pencil lead. Two slats were glued together with the lead between. The method is still being used today.
15、威廉?门罗,马赛诸塞州康科德城的一个橱柜制造者,在美国生产了第一批铅笔。1812年的战争中断了铅笔的进口。门罗设计了一套机器用来制作木条。每一根木条中开了一条只有铅笔直径一半宽的槽,两个木条用胶粘合在一起,铅笔芯置于两个木条中间。这种方法一直沿用到今天。
William Monroe=威廉?门罗; Concord=康科德城, Massachusetts=马赛诸塞州;cabinet-maker=橱柜制造者;the first pencils=第一批铅笔; halted=中断;import=进口; Monroe=门罗;develop=开发; machinery=机器; wooden=木制的; slats==条板; grooved=开槽的; half the thickness of a pencil=铅笔直径一半宽; Two slats=两个木条;glue=粘合;
  16.Monroe's first American-made lead pencils-about 30 of them-were sold to a Boston hardware dealer in July,1812.But it was not until many years later that American pencils began to sell as well as European brands.
16、1812年7月,门罗的第一批大约30支铅笔卖给了波士顿市的杂货店中间商。但是直到很多年以后,美国制造的铅笔才开始和欧洲品牌卖的一样好。
Monroe's first American-made lead pencils=门罗的第一批美国制造的铅笔; hardware=五金器具; dealer=经销商; as well as=和; European=欧洲的; brand=商品的牌子
  17. Today the nation's 15-odd pencil manufactures produce about a-billion-and -a-half wooden pencils a year. This amounts to about nine apiece for each man, woman, and child in the country. At manufacturers wholesale prices this business amounted to $35 million in 1957—not including mechanical pencils. About nine wooden lead pencils are sold here for every one of all other varieties of writing tools.
17、今天,这个国家的15个铅笔制造厂,每年生产出大约15亿支木制铅笔。这个数量差不多使这个国家里的每个人平均拥有9支铅笔,包括男人、女人、和孩子。在1957年,按照商品生产商的批发价格计算,铅笔销售总额达到了三千五百万美元,其中还不包括机械自动铅笔。差不多每一支其它种类的书写工具售出,就有9支木制铅笔被售出。
15-odd pencil=15个铅笔; manufacture=制造; a-billion-and -a-half =15亿支;wooden pencil=木制的铅笔; amount=数量; apiece=各; manufacturer=制造商; wholesale=批发的;price=价格; business =交易;amounte to =总计; include=包括; mechanical=机械的;pencil=铅笔; About nine wooden[adj.木制的] lead pencils=铅笔; every one =每一个; variety=种类
  18. The modern 7-inch long pencil can draw a line 35 miles in length; it can write an average of 45,000 words, and it can take an average of 17 sharpening. For some strange reason, about 75 percent of all pencil sold for general use are finished in yellow. A carpenter's pencil is usually finished in bright red. The color makes the pencil easy to find in wood shavings.
18、一支7英寸长的现代铅笔可以画出35英里长的线,它平均可以写出45000个单词,并且平均能够进行17次的削尖。由于某些奇怪的原因,被卖出的铅笔差不多百分之七十五是黄色的。而木匠用铅笔则通常是明亮的红色。这种颜色使得铅笔很容易在木屑中被发现。
 18. The modern 7-inch long pencil=一支7英寸长的现代铅笔; draw =画; length=长; it can write an average[adj.平均的] of 45,000 words=它平均可以写出45000个单词; take an average=平均起来算; sharpening=削尖; strange=奇怪;reason=原因; finish=用完; carpenter=木匠; bright red=鲜红; wood shavings=木屑,shaving刨花
19. Judging by the ever-increasing demand for them, it appears that the lead pencil is here to stay. At least as long as business and industry, educational institutions and the U.S. Government continue. For they are its three largest consumers. 
 19、从对铅笔需求不断增长的情况判断,看来铅笔还会继续存在,至少只要工商业、教育机构、美国政府继续存在,对于铅笔业来说它们是三个最大的客户。
Judge=断定;the ever-increasing demand=需求不断增长,demand要求; appear=出现; lead pencil=铅笔; At least=至少;as long as =只要; institutions=公共机构; continue=继续; consumer=消费者
▲ 动名词做宾语
1、 下列动词后只能用动名词。mind, finish, enjoy, require, delay, postpone, practice, avoid, consider, deny, give up, put off, advise, favor, encourage, imagine等。
●I first considered writing to him, but then decided to speak to him face to face.
起初我想写信给他,但后来我决定还是当面跟他讲。
●In some countries, people favor staying together even though there is much more space.
在一些国家,尽管有很多空地,人们还是愿意住在一起。
● Natural abilities are like natural plants that need pruning(修
剪) by study.
天生的才干如同天生的植物一样,需要靠学习来修剪。
2、 like, love, hate, begin, start等动词后即可用不定式也可以用动名词。它们之间的区别与做主语和表语时一样。有时界限并不十分明显,可以换用。
● He doesn’t like seeing films.(泛指)
● He doesn’t like to see this film.
我不喜欢看这个电影。(具体)
● I hate smoking.
我讨厌吸烟。(泛指对吸烟的行为讨厌)
● I hate to smoke.
我不爱吸烟。(具体指我不喜欢吸烟)






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天亮再爱
  
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 发表于 2007-10-03 18:31:02  4#

四十三、Becoming Wealthy: It's Up to You(致富取决于你自己)
1.Critics often speak of “the rich” with none-too-subtle disdain, as if those at the very top of the income ladder are all dishonest people or as if becoming rich is difficult and means others must become poorer. While we would be the first to admit that some rich people are dishonest, we must add that achieving the status of “the rich” (defined, say, by having a net worth of $1,000,000) is not particularly difficult, contrary to popular wisdom. The rules for acquiring substantial wealth are few, simple. This fact suggests that becoming rich for most Americans is a matter of choice.  
 1、评论家们一说起富人往往带有明显的蔑视。就好象收入高的层次的人们都是狡诈之人,或者意味着成为富有阶层不容易而且其他人(诚实之人)一定不如他们富有。首先我们承认有些富人不诚实,但我们必须补充一点:与普遍的认识相反,达到富人阶层(它的概念应该是净收入一百万美元)并不是特别难。获取可观财富的规则只有几条,而且简单。这就意味着对于大多数美国人来说想不想变富是一个选择的问题。
Wealthy=富人;It's Up to You=取决于你自己
Critics=批评家们; speak of=谈及;the rich=富人; with =有;none-too-subtle=明显地,subtle不十分明显的; disdain=鄙视; as if=好像; top=最高的;income=收入; ladder=阶梯; dishonest=不诚实的; mean=意味;poorer=穷人; admit=承认;add=增加; achieve =达到 ; status=地位; define=给…下定义; net worth =净值; particularly=特别的; contrary to=与…相反; popular wisdom=普遍的认识, popular流行wisdom=智慧; rule=规则; acquire=获得; substantial=可观的; wealth=财富; fact=实际;suggests=暗示; matter=问题;choice=选择;
2. One of the rules for being rich is to avoid frivolous temptations. That is easier said than done, and we do not necessarily recommend that all people should lead a pure and joyless life. We mean only to point out that the great majority of those four percent of Americans who have $1,000,000 in net worth get to where they are because they control their pleasures. For example, rich Americans buy cars that are on average only slightly more expensive than those less wealthy Americans buy.
2、变为富有的第一个规则是避免无重要意义的诱惑。说起来容易做起来难,而且我们也无意建议所有人都该过着平淡无味的生活。我们只是想指出那些占美国人口百分之四的净收入达一百万美元的大多数人之所以达到今天的富有就是因为他们克制了自己的享乐。例如,富有的美国人买的汽车平均来讲只是略好于那些不太富有的人的汽车。
Avoid=避免;frivolous=无意义的;temptation=诱惑; That is easier said than done=说起来容易做起来难; necessarily=必要的; recommend=建议; lead=过(生活); pure=纯的; joyless=无趣的; point out=指出; majority=大多数;four percent=百分之四; net worth=净值;get to =达到; control=控制; pleasure=享乐; For example=例如; on average=平均起来; slightly=轻微地; more …than…=比…更… ; less wealthy=不太富
3. Being able to save and accumulate considerable wealth is not automatic. People must have a reasonable income in order to save amounts that will make for wealth, which requires several auxiliary rules for achieving an income level that will allow for a minimum saving level. For most—those without the requisite luck, inheritance, special talents, or good ideas—becoming rich means getting an education. Few people who drop out of high school will be rich. The income of high school dropouts is about two-thirds that of Americans with a high school diploma.  
 3、能够节省和积累可观的财富不是自动的。要想省一定量的钱来足以积累成为财富,人们必须有适当的收入。为达到能够允许最低节省钱的收入水平还需要几个辅助规则。对大多数没有必要的运气、继承的财产、特殊的天才或好想法的人们成为富有就意味着受教育。高中就辍学的人很少变为富有的。高中辍学人的收入是拥有高中毕业文凭的人收入的三分之二。
Be able to=能; save =节省;accumulate=积累;considerable=可观的;wealth=财富; automatic=自动的; reasonable=合情理的;income=收入; in order to =为了; amount=数量; make for=有助于;require=需要; several auxiliary rules=几个辅助规则,auxiliary辅助的, rule规则; achieve=达到; an income level=收入水平; allow允许; a minimum[n.最小量 a.最小的] saving level=最低节省的水平,minimum=最小的; without=没有; requisite=必不可少的; luck=运气; inheritance=遗产; special=特殊的; talent=天才; good ideas=好想法; education=教育;Few people =没什么人;drop out of=辍学 ;high school=高中; The income of high school dropouts=高中辍学人的收入,dropout退学生; two-thirds=三分之二; with=具有; a high school diploma=高中毕业文凭,diploma毕业文凭
4. To have a good chance at being rich, though, most individuals (aside for the lucky ones) will need at least a college education, which just about will double their incomes over what they would have earned with only a high school diploma. A professional degree will result in an average annual income of about twice that of college graduates (or six times the income of a high school dropout). This means that those who invest in education do not have to save as high a percentage of income to become rich at retirement. However, in all probability, educated Americans Will be richer at retirement simply because they will be able to save more along the way and because they are likely to be smarter and can achieve a higher rate of return on their savings.
4、但是要想有好机会变富有大多数(除了幸运的)至少需要受到大学教育,与只有高中文凭的相比,大学的教育可使他们的收入翻一翻。大学以上的学历会导致比大学毕业的年平均收入增加一倍(或是高中辍学人的六倍)。这就意味着在教育上投资的人要想在退休时致富不必节省同样高比例的收入。但是极为可能的是受过良好教育的美国人之所以在退休时更富有是因为他们在过去的岁月里积攒得更多,而且他们可能更明智,获取更高的存款的投资回报率。
Though=虽然;individual=个人; aside=除去; at least=最少; college=大学; just about=几乎; double=两倍; earn=挣得; a high school diploma=高中毕业文凭,diploma毕业文凭; A professional degree=专业学位,professional 专业的;result in=导致; annual=每年的; twice =两倍; college graduate=大学毕业;six times=六倍; a high school dropout==高中辍学人; invest=投资; education=教育; do not have to =不必,have to 不得不;save=节省; high a percentage of income=高比例的收入; become rich=致富 ; retirement=退休;However=可是;in all probability=很可能; educated Americans=受过教育的美国人; richer =富人; retirement=退休; simply=简单地; be able to=能; save =节省;more along=更往前; the way=这方面; are likely to=可能;smarter=更明智; achieve=完成; a higher rate of return on their savings=更高的存款的投资回报率,saving存款。






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 发表于 2007-10-03 18:31:09  5#

5. The first auxiliary rule for becoming rich is to stay in school or, if out of school, go back to it. Of course, to stay in school is not enough and they will learn something worth the time and effort. It never has been easier to get an education. Public schools are free for the taking. College costs have been rising steadily relative to family income level for more than a decade. However, the rate of return on a college education has been rising as well, making the investment a good deal. Meanwhile, the cost of self-education has fallen with the multitude of sources of knowledge and information available on CD-ROMs and the Internet.
致富的第一条辅助规则是坚持修完学业,即使走出了校门也要回去。当然留在学校还不够,还要学习一些值得学习的知识。历来受教育都不是容易的事情。上公立中学免学费。十几年来,相对于家庭收入水平,上大学的费用一直在稳步上升。然而,高等教育的回报率也在上升,这使得投资划算,成为很好的交易。同时,由于从CD-ROM和互联网上可获取大量的知识和信息,自学的费用已经降低。
The first auxiliary rule=第一条辅助规则; stay=坚持; in school=求学; out of =离开; go back to=回去; Of course=当然; enough=足够; worth the time and effort=在时间和努力上值得; It never has been easier to get an education=从来没有比受教育更容易的,never…easier…从来没有…比…更容易; Public school=公立中学;free=免费; take=取; College costs= 大学的费用;rise=上升;steadily=稳定地; relative to =相当于; family income level=家庭收入水平; more than =比…更; decade=十年; However=然而; the rate of return on a college education=高等教育的回报率,rate比率,return回报;as well=也; make=使; investment=投资; deal=交易;Meanwhile=同时; the cost of self-education=自学的费用; fall=下降;multitude=多数;source=来源;knowledge=知识;information=信息; available=可利用的; CD-ROM=光盘; Internet=因特网
6. The second auxiliary rule for becoming rich is to pick your education carefully. Teachers will find getting rich tougher than engineers, given that the former can expect to earn half as much over their careers. History and music professors can expect to earn less than accounting professors. For that matter, history and music professors can expect to earn a lot less than their students who major in business.
致富的第二条辅助规则是要精心地选好所受的教育。考虑到在工作期间教师的工薪预期是工程师的二分之一,前者致富要更难。教历史和音乐的教授预期要比会计学教授薪水少。正因为如此,历史和音乐教授预期要比他们的专业为商业的学生薪水少得多。
 The second auxiliary rule=第二条辅助规则; pick=精选;carefully=小心地;tougher=艰难的; engineer=工程师;given =考虑到;the former=前者;expect=预期; earn=挣得; half as much =...的一半, career=职业; History and music professors=教历史和音乐的教授;expect=预期; less than=小于; accounting=会计学; professor=教授]. For that matter=正因为如此; a lot less than=少的多; major=主要的; business=商业.
7. The third auxiliary rule for becoming rich is to marry someone with an equal or higher education, and then stay married. By itself, marriage seems to provide a stable institutional setting that promotes greater earnings, which affords greater savings. Married couples not only earn more than non-married people, they tend to economize on the costs of running their households, allowing them to save and invest at higher rate. Moreover, the binding legal contracts at the foundation of marriages, which reflect their personal commitments to each other, give the couple an added economic incentive to invest in the joint assets of the union.
第三条致富的辅助规则是与受教育水平和你相等或高于你的人结婚,然后保持婚姻状态。婚姻本身似乎提供一个稳定的处所,稳定的处所又能促进挣更多的钱,从更多的钱中抽得出更多的存款。结婚的夫妻不仅比不结婚的挣得多,而且在家庭运转的支出中,他们往往节省,使得他们省下钱来并以更高的回报投资。而且建立婚姻时有约束力的合法契约表现了他们对彼此的承诺,在经济上给双方增加了向联盟共同财产投资的动力。
The third auxiliary rule=第三条辅助规则; marry=结婚; equal=均等的; stay married=保持婚姻;By itself, marriage=婚姻本身,marriage婚姻; provide=提供;stable=稳定的;institutional=制度的;setting=环境;promote=促进;greater earnings=所挣的钱更多; affords=提供;greater savings=更多储蓄; Married couple=结婚的夫妻; not only …more than…不仅比…多; non-married people=没结婚的人;tend to =往往;economize=节省; the costs of running their households=家庭运转的支出;allow=允许; invest=投资; Moreover=而且; binding=有约束力;legal=合法的;contract=合同; foundation=基础; reflect=反映;personal=个人的; commitment=承诺; each other=彼此; give=使; couple=夫妇; add to=增加;economic incentive=经济鼓励;invest=投资; joint =共同的;asset=资产; union=联盟;
8. The fourth auxiliary rule is to be able to work and save for a long time. Alcoholics and drug addicts who are not yet rich are unlikely candidates for becoming so. They will be unable to work long and hard enough to earn the requisite incomes, and their careers will be full of instability, if they can even have careers. Most will drink, inject, or smoke up whatever incomes they earn; their suppliers undoubtedly will get rich at the expense of their customers—the addicts. 第四条辅助规则是有能力工作而且长时间积累。还未致富的嗜酒者和吸毒者不太可能变为富有。他们不能长久地工作而且难以挣回基本的收入,而且即使有职业他们的工作会不稳定。大多数人会酗酒、注射毒品、或把他们挣来的收入吸毒用尽。提供给他们毒品的人将以顾客—吸毒成隐者为代价而发财。
The fourth auxiliary rule=第四条辅助规则; be able to =能; save=节省; for a long time=长时间; Alcoholic=酒鬼;drug=吸毒; addict=上瘾的人; unlikely=不太可能; candidate=候选人;. be unable to =不能;work long=长期工作; career=职业; be full of =充满;instability=不稳定; drink=酗酒; inject=注射; or smoke=吸毒 ;whatever=凡是..... ;supplier=供给的人;undoubtedly=毫无疑问地; expense=开支 ;customers=消费者; addict上瘾的人;
9. From our perspective, becoming rich is really a matter of choice. Opportunity to do so abound. Of course, recognizing that you can choose to become rich does not mean that you should. As we have noted, choosing to become rich requires sacrifices that many people quite rationally have chosen not to make. One can lead a life rich in satisfaction and accomplishment without becoming rich financially, and nothing we have written here is meant to suggest otherwise.
在我们看来,致富的确是选择的问题。机会到处存在。当然意识到可以选择致富并不意味着应该致富。正象我们所见,选择致富需要牺牲,很多人很理智地不选择发财。一个人虽然金钱上不富有,但可以生活得满意而有成就。本篇所写的内容无意提相反建议。
Perspective=观点; a matter of choice=选择的问题;Opportunity=机会; abound=大量存在;Of course=当然;recognize=意识到; As=正如; note =注意; requires=需要;sacrifice=牺牲; rationally=理性的; lead=过(生活)] ;satisfaction=满意;accomplishment=成就; is meant to =打算;suggest otherwise=相反建议,suggest建议






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夜魔女孩
  
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 发表于 2007-10-03 18:31:13  6#

四十四、An Introduction to Distillation(蒸馏概述)
1. Petroleum refining is the separation of petroleum into fractions and the subsequent treating of these fractions to make them into petroleum products. Most petroleum products, including kerosenes, fuel oils, lubricating oils, and waxes, are fractions of petroleum that have been treated to remove undesirable components. Other products, for example, gasolines, aromatic solvents, and even some asphalts, are totally or partly synthetic in that they have compositions that are impossible to achieve by direct separation of these materials from crude petroleum. They result from chemical processes that change the molecular nature of selected portions of crude petroleum; in other words, they are the products of refining or they are refined products.  
 1、石油炼制即将石油分离成各种馏分,然后将这些馏分经过处理,制成各种石油产品。大部分石油产品,包括煤油、燃料油、润滑油和石蜡,都是原油经过处理去掉不需要的成分而得到的石油馏分。其他石油产品,如汽油、芳烃溶剂、甚至包括有些沥青,则是通过完全或者部分合成而制造的。因为组成这些产品的物质成分无法通过直接分离原油获得,而是通过化学反应过程,从原油中选定某些成分并改变其分子属性而获得的。换言之,它们是通过炼制得到的,或称为炼制产品。
 Petroleum refining=石油炼制, Petroleum石油,refine=精炼; separation=分离;into =成为...; fraction=【化】馏分, 分馏物; subsequent=随后;treat=处理; fractions=【化】馏分, 分馏物; make into=把…制成; petroleum product=石油产品; include=包括; kerosene=煤油; fuel oil=燃料油[油], lubricating oil=润滑油,lubricate润滑; wax=石蜡; fraction of petroleum=石油馏分; remove=移走; undesirable=不合需要的; component=成分; for example=例如;gasoline=(美)汽油;, aromatic=芬芳的; solvent=溶剂; even =甚至; asphalt=沥青; totally=完全地; partly=部分地; synthetic=合成的; in that =因为,相当于because;composition=成分; impossible=不可能的;achieve=完成; by =由;direct separation=直接分离; material=物质; crude petroleum=原油; result from=由...产生;chemical processes=化学反应,chemical化学的,processe作用; change=改变;molecular=分子的;nature=本性; of select=挑选出来的;portion=部分; crude petroleum=原油; in other words=换句话说; the products of refining=炼制得到的产品; refined product=炼制产品
  2. Refining petroleum is a complex series of steps by which the original crude material is eventually converted into salable products with the desired qualities and, perhaps more important, in the amounts dictated by the market.
2、石油炼制包含一系列复杂的过程。通过这些过程,石油原料最终转化成为可销售的产品。这些产品在质量上符合人类需要,而更重要的是它们在数量上符合市场要求。
Refining petroleum=石油炼制; a complex series of steps=一系列复杂的步骤;complex复杂, serie,系列, step步骤; original crude material=石油原料,original 原始,crude原油,material原料;eventually=最终; convert into =转化成为;salable=有销路的; desired=想得到的;qualities=质量;; perhaps=或许; amounts=数量;dictate=支配; market=市场.
3. In fact, a refinery is essentially a group of manufacturing plants that vary in number with the variety of products produced; refinery processes must be selected and products manufactured to give a balanced operation: that is, crude oil must be converted into products according to the rate of sale of each. For example, the manufacture of products from the lower boiling portion of petroleum automatically produces a certain amount of higher boiling components. If the latter cannot be sold as, say, heavy fuel oil, they accumulate until refinery storage facilities are full. To prevent the occurrence of such a situation, the refinery must be flexible and able to change operations as needed. This usually means more processes-a cracking process to change an excess of heavy fuel oil into more gasoline with coke as the residual product or a vacuum distillation process to separate the heavy oil into lubricating oil stocks and asphalt—to accommodate the ever-changing demands of the market.
3、实际上,炼油厂从根本上说是一组生产装置,其数量根据生产产品的不同而不同。炼油工艺须经选择,产品生产应该平衡:即从原油生产产品必须依据每一产品的销售速度而进行。比如,从沸点较低的组分生产石油产品,就会自动产生一定数量的高沸点产品。如果高沸点产品,如重燃料油,无法销售,这些产品就会积压,直到装满炼厂的储存设施。要避免这种情况出现,炼厂应采取灵活措施,并能够根据需要改变操作。一般而言,这意味着需要更多的工艺以适应不断变化的市场需求:运用裂化工艺将过剩重燃料油转化成汽油,而焦碳成为残余品;或者运用真空蒸馏工艺将重油分解成润滑油和沥青。
In fact=实际上;refinery=炼油厂; essentially=本质上;a group of manufacturing=生产;plant=装置; vary=改变; in number=在数量上; with =以…;variety=多样化;product=产品;produce=生产; refinery process=炼油工艺,refinery炼油厂,process 工艺; select=选择; products manufactured=产品制造; balance=平衡;operation=运作: crude oil=原油;convert into ==转化成为; according to=依照; the rate of sale=销售速度; For example=例如;manufacture of product=产品的制造;the lower boiling portion=沸点较低的组分,boiling 沸点,portion 部分; automatically=自动地; produce=生产; a certain amount of higher boiling components=一定数量高沸点的组分; component组分; latter=后者; sold=销售; say=比方说; heavy fuel oil=重燃料油; accumulate=积压; until =直到; storage facilities=贮存设备, To prevent=防止,不定式引导的分词状语; occurrence=发生; such a situation=这种情况situation情况; refinery=炼油厂; flexible=有灵活性的; be able to=能; change=改变 operation=运作; as needed=根据需要. Processe=工艺;a cracking process=裂化工艺;change…into..=转化为; excess=过剩; heavy fuel oil=重燃料油;gasoline=(美)汽油; coke=焦炭; residual product=剩余产品;a vacuum distillation process=真空蒸馏工艺,vacuum真空,distillation蒸馏; separate into=分离…成为; heavy oil=(将焦油蒸馏得到的比重大于水的)重油; lubricating oil stock=润滑油库存,stock库存; asphalt=沥青; accommodate=适应; the ever-changing[adj.千变万化] demands of the market=不断变化的市场需求.
4.In addition, a complete refining installation must include the following: all necessary non-processing facilities; adequate tankage for storing crude oil, intermediate, and finished products; a dependable source of electrical power, material-handling equipment; workshops and supplies for maintaining a continuous 24 h/day, 7 day/week operation; waste disposal and water-treating equipment; and product-blending facilities.
4、 此外,一套完整的炼油装置须包括以下设备:所有必须的非工艺设施:足够的储罐容量用以储存原油、中间产品和成品;可靠的电力和物质处理设备来源;用于维持一天24小时,一周七天连续运转所需的车间和物资:废料和污水处理设备;以及产品调合设施。
 In addition=另外; a complete refining installation=一套完整的炼油装置,完整,installation 装置; include=包括; following=下列; necessary=必需的; non-processing facilities=非工艺设施, facility设施; adequate=足够的;tankage=储罐容量; store=存储; crude oil=原油; intermediate and finished products=中间产品和成品,intermediate 中间,finish完成; a dependable source of electrical power=可靠的电力来源,dependable 可靠;source 来源,electrical power电力; material-handling equipment=原材料处理设备,material-handling原材料处理; workshop=车间; supply=供给maintain=维持; continuous=连续不断的; 24 h/day=一天24小时, 7 day/week=一周七天; operation=运作; waste disposal and water-treating equipment=废料和污水处理设备,waste 废料,disposal 处理,treat处理; product-blending facility=产品调合设施,blend=混合;






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失窃的灵魂
  
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 发表于 2007-10-03 18:31:21  7#

5. In the early stages of refinery development, when illuminating and lubricating oils were the main products, distillation was the major and often only refinery process. At that time, gasoline was a minor, but more often unwanted, product. As the demand for gasoline increased, conversion processes were developed because distillation could no longer supply the necessary quantities.   5、在早期炼油工业发展过程中,照明用油和润滑油是主要的产品,蒸馏则成了主要的甚至经常是唯一的炼油工艺。当时,汽油本身尽管不是重要产品,但也常讨人嫌。随着市场对汽油需求的增加,产品转化工艺随之发展,因为蒸馏已不能满足对汽油的数量需求。
Stage=时期;refinery=炼油厂;development=发展; illuminate=照明; lubricating =润滑的; distillation=蒸馏; major=主要的; only =唯一;refinery process=炼油工艺; At that time=在那时; gasoline=(美)汽油; minor=在重要性上较低的; unwanted=讨厌的;demand=要求; increase=增加; conversion processes=转化工艺; develope=发展; distillation=蒸馏; no longer=不再; supply=.供给; the necessary quantities=数量需求,quantity数量
  6. Nevertheless, distillation has remained a major refinery process and a process to which just about every crude that enters the refinery is subjected. A multitude of separations are accomplished by distillation, but its most important and primary function in the refinery is its use for the separation of crude oil into component fractions.
6、但是,蒸馏仍然是重要的炼油工艺,而且所有原油进入炼厂都必须经过蒸馏。许多分离过程是通过蒸馏进行的,但蒸馏在炼油厂中的最重要和主要的功能则是它在将原油分离成不同馏分过程中的作用。
Nevertheless=然而; distillation=蒸馏; remain=保持; major=主要的; refinery process==炼油工艺; process=工艺; every crude=所有原油;enter=进入; refinery=炼油厂;subject=服从的; A multitude of separations=许多分离,separation分离; accomplished=完成; by =由…;distillation=蒸馏; primary=最重要的;function=功能; refinery=炼油厂; separation into =分离…成为…;component=成分 fraction=【化】馏分, 分馏物;
7. Thus it is possible to obtain products ranging from gaseous materials taken off the top of the distillation column to a heavy residue or “bottom”, which is usually nonvolatile, with correspondingly lighter materials taken off at intermediate points. However, the majority of crude oils, and this applies to the heavier, more viscous petroleums, which are processed by distillation, are usually separated into the lighter fractions (gas, gasoline, naphtha, kerosene, and gas oil) and the bottom or, as it is more generally called, the reduced crude.  
 7、由此,我们有可能获得石油产品,这些产品包括从蒸馏塔顶部得到的气态物质,包括比重较大的渣油或称“残渣”(一般而言挥发性较差),以及从蒸馏塔中部得到的比重较小的其他相应物质。但是,经过蒸馏处理的大多数原油,包括比重较大、粘度更大的原油,一般都分离为较轻组分(气、汽油、粗汽油、煤油和粗柴油)和残渣,或者更多称作常压重油。
Thus=从而; it is possible to… =有可能,一种固定句型模式;obtain=获得; range=一系列;gaseous materials=气态物质,gaseous气态的; taken off=起飞; the top of the distillation column=蒸馏塔顶部, distillation column=蒸馏塔,column 柱; heavy residue=比重大的残渣;bottom=底部,这里指残渣; usually=通常; nonvolatile=不挥发的;with =具有;correspondingly=相对地; lighter materials=比重较小的物质; taken off=起飞; intermediate points=中部,point 地点; However然而; the majority of crude oils=大多数原油; apply to=适用...于; heavier=比重较大; viscous=粘性的; process=工艺; distillation=蒸馏; separate…into…=成为; the lighter fraction=较轻组分,fraction【化】馏分, 分馏物; gas=气; gasoline=(美)汽油; naphtha=粗汽油, kerosene=煤油; gas oil=粗柴油;bottom==底部,这里指残渣; more generally called=更多称,generally一般; reduced crude=常压重油,reduced简化
  8.The reduced crude may then be processed by vacuum or steam distillation to separate the high-boiling lubricating oil fractions without the danger of decomposition, which occurs at high (>350℃, 660℉) temperatures. Indeed, atmospheric distillation may be terminated with a lower boiling fraction (“cut”) if it is thought that vacuum or steam distillation will yield a better quality product or if the process appears to be economically more favorable.
8、然后,通过真空蒸馏或蒸汽蒸馏,常压重油可以分离成高沸点润滑油组分而没有分解的危险。这种分离在高温状态下进行(>350℃,660℉)。如果认为真空蒸馏或蒸汽蒸馏生产的产品质量更好,或者从经济角度看更为有利,则低沸点组分分离出来后,常压蒸馏即可结束。
reduced crude=常压重油,reduced简化;process=工艺;vacuum or steam distillation=真空蒸馏或蒸汽蒸馏,vacuum真空,steam蒸气; separate=分离;the high-boiling lubricating oil fraction=高沸点润滑油组分,lubricating润滑的,fraction【化】馏分, 分馏物; without the danger of decomposition=没有分解的危险,danger危险,decomposition分解; occur=发生; high temperature=高温; Indeed=实际上; atmospheric distillation=常压蒸馏,atmospheric 大气的; terminate=结束; a lower boiling[(boil):vi.&vt.煮] fraction=低沸点组分,fraction【化】馏分, 分馏物; cut=分成几部分;= thought=认为; vacuum or steam distillation==真空蒸馏或蒸汽蒸馏,vacuum真空,steam蒸气;yield=生产; a better quality product=质量更好的产品; process=工艺;appear=出现; economically more favorable=更为有利于经济地
atmospheric distillation may be terminated with a lower boiling fraction (“cut”) if it is thought that vacuum or steam distillation will yield a better quality product or if the process appears to be economically more favorable.
一个句子有主句和条件句,翻译时应该先翻译完条件从句再翻译主句。
即先翻译if it is thought that vacuum or steam distillation will yield a better quality product or if the process appears to be economically more favorable.
如果认为真空蒸馏或蒸汽蒸馏生产的产品质量更好,或者从经济角度看更为有利
最后翻译主句:
atmospheric distillation may be terminated with a lower boiling fraction (“cut”)
低沸点组分分离出来后,常压蒸馏即可结束。
全句为:
如果认为真空蒸馏或蒸汽蒸馏生产的产品质量更好,或者从经济角度看更为有利,则低沸点组分分离出来后,常压蒸馏即可结束。






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 发表于 2007-10-03 18:31:42  8#

四十五、Sales Promotion(产品促销)
  1. Sales promotion consists of those promotional activities other than advertising, personal selling, and publicity. As such, any promotional activities that do not fall under the other three activities of the promotion mix are considered sales promotion. The trade often uses the term indiscriminately. Businesspersons may use the term “promotion” when they actually mean “sales promotion.” For purpose here, promotion is a broad term that encompasses sales promotion as well as the other three promotional activities.
1、产品促销是由那些不同于广告、个人销售和宣传的推销活动组成。因此,不属于以上三种推销活动的推销活动都被认为是促销。实际生活中经常不加区分地使用这一概念。商务人员在说“推销”时,实际上指的是“促销”。本文中,推销是一个广义的概念,它包括促销以及广告、个人销售和宣传三种推销活动。
 Sales promotion=促销;sale=销售 ,promotion=推销; consist of ;由…组成;promotional activity=推销活动;other than=不同于; advertising=广告; personal selling=个人销售,personal个人的; publicity=宣传; As such=同样; fall under=被归入; promotion=推销; mix=混合; consider=认为; Sales promotion=促销;the trade=贸易; term=术语; indiscriminately=不加选择的; Businessperson=商务人员;promotion=actually=实际的;Sales promotion=促销; purpose=意图; promotion=推销; broad=广义的; term=术语; that encompass=包括; Sales promotion=促销; as well as=和; promotional activity=推销活动;.
  2. The techniques of sales promotion are varied and numerous. The common ones used are coupons, sweepstakes, games, contests, price-offs, demonstrations, premiums, samples, and money refund offers. A combination of these can be used and sometimes is used in the same campaign.
2、促销的手段多种多样,数不胜数。普遍运用的手段有附在商品上的赠券、各种抽奖活动、游戏、竞赛、降价销售、产品示范、各种奖励、样品试验以及钱款返还承诺等等。在同—推销活动中,多种手段可以结合使用,有时也确实结合使用。
 technique=手法; Sales promotion=促销; varied=各式各样的; numerous=数不胜数; The common ones used=平常被用来的手段,common普通的,ones代替了前面提到的The techniques of sales promotion,used过去分词做后置定语; coupon=赠券;sweepstake=抽奖; game=游戏;contest=竞赛; price-off=降价; demonstration=示范;premium=奖赏; sample=样品;money refund=钱款返还; offer=提供; combination=结合; the same=一样; campaign=(商业性)活动
3. Sales promotion is temporary in nature. Not being self-sustaining, its function is to supplement advertising, personal selling, and publicity. To launch Budweiser beer in Great Britain, Anheuser-Busch employed the “American” theme. Its TV commercials on the 4th of July and Thanksgiving Day were spots filmed in California with American actors. To supplement its advertising effort, the company used a variety of sales-promotion techniques. It made posters, bunting, flags, pennants, T-shirts, and sweatshirts available to pubs and discos for promotional parties. Bud ashtrays, bar towels, coasters, football pennants, and similar items were offered for sale. Moreover, American disc jockeys were brought in to program American music nights.
3、从本质上说,促销活动具有时间短暂的特点。由于其本身没有自我持续的能力,它的作用就是作为广告、个人销售和宣传等推销活动的补充。为了将百威啤酒打入英国市场,Anheuser-Busch运用了“美国”主题。7月4日和感恩节的电视广告播的都是美国演员在加利福尼亚拍摄的场景。为了加强广告力度,该公司运用了大量的促销手段,如制作海报、装饰旗和三角旗等各种旗帜以及体恤衫和汗衫等供促销团体出入酒吧和迪斯科夜总会。同时它还制作烟灰缸、酒吧餐巾、杯垫子、杯托子、足球赛用的三角旗以及诸如此类的物品用于销售。此外,该公司还专门邀请电台的音乐节目主持人开办美国音乐之夜。
Sales promotion=促销; temporary=暂时的;in nature=本质上; self-sustaining=自我持续 ;function=作用;supplement=补充; advertising=广告; personal selling=个人销售,personal个人的; publicity=宣传; launch=投放市场; Budweiser beer=百威啤酒;Great Britain=英国;, Anheuser-Busch =安海斯-布希公司,旗下有世界最大的啤酒酿造公司;employ=使用;theme=主题; TV commercials=电视商业广告; on the 4th of July =7月4日,美国国庆日; Thanksgiving Day=感恩节; spot=场景; film=拍摄; California=加利福尼亚;with=用; American actors=美国演员; supplement=补充; advertis=广告; effort=努力; company=公司; a variety of=多种的;sales-promotion=促销; technique=手法; make=使; poster=海报;;bunting=旗布;; flag=旗帜; pennant=三角旗; T-shirt=圆领汗衫, sweatshirt=运动衫; available=可利用的; pub=酒吧; disco=进迪斯科舞厅; promotional party=推销晚会; Bud ashtrays=花蕾烟灰缸,ashtray烟灰缸; bar towel=酒吧餐巾;coaster=杯垫; football pennant=足球赛用的三角旗;similar items=诸如此类的物品,similar 类似;offer=提供; sale=出售; Moreover=除此之外;
disc jockey=电台的音乐节目主持人(=D.J.);bring in=邀请; program=安排节目; American music nights=美国音乐之夜
  4. Sales promotion is not restricted to the stimulation of demand at the consumer level. It may be used to gain middlemen's support as well. In Order to get Thai middlemen to carry Foremost's dairy products, the company used leasing and conditional sales contracts to provide small retail outlets' and restaurants with freezers for $1 if contract terms were met. Foremost also had to convince these resellers not to store other products in the freezers and not to unplug freezer units at night to save electricity.
4、促销不仅局限于拉动消费者的需求,也可以用来赢得中间商的支持。为了使泰国的中间商销售其乳制品,Foremost公司运用租赁和有条件销售合同以一美元的价格向那些零售小商店和饭店提供冰柜,条件是要满足合同条款。同时,该公司还得说服这些转卖商不要在冰柜中储存其他产品,并且不要为了省电而在夜间拔去冰柜插座。
4. Sales promotion=促销;be restrict to =局限于; stimulation=刺激; demand=需求; the consumer level=消费者层次;be used to =被用于gain=赢得; middlemen's support=中间商,support 支持; as well=也; In Order to =为了;get=获得 Thai=泰国人;middlemen=中间商;carry=运送,这里指“经销” ;Foremost's dairy products=Foremost公司的乳制品,dairy乳制品; company=公司; lease=租契; conditional=有条件的;sale contract=销售合同; provide… with…=用…提供…; retail=零售; outlet=商店; restaurant=饭店; =用freezer=冰箱; $1 =一美元; contract term=合同条款; met=meet过去分词,这里指“满足”. Foremost=Foremost公司; have to=一定得 convince=说服; reseller=转卖商;store=存储;freezer=冰箱; unplug=拔掉;unit=装置;save electricity=省电,electricity 电
“销售”在我们汉语中可以是动词和名词,
英语中“销售”的名词形式是sale,动词形式是sell,因此Sales promotion“促销”中的sale是“销售”其名词形式,而且还是复数形式;






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 发表于 2007-10-03 18:32:07  9#

  5. The use of sales promotion is not limited to consumer products. It can be used with industrial selling too. Misawa Homes promoted its House 55 by sending samples to U.S. Homes and Germany's Okal. Pfizer, like other drug firms, attracts drug wholesalers by sponsoring trips and other events. Gifts are given to doctors, and doctors' wives are taken on shopping tours.
5、促销手段的运用不仅仅限于消费品,它也可以用于工业销售。MisawaHomes为了推销其House55产品而向美国的Homes公司和德国的Okal公司寄送样品。与此类似,Pfizer公司同其他药品公司一样,通过组织旅游和其他活动来吸引药品批发商。他们向医生们赠送礼品,而且组织医生的夫人们进行购物旅游。
 The use of Sales promotion=促销的运用; limit to=限于; consumer products=消费品; industrial selling=工业销售; Misawa Homes=日本企业:三泽HOMES; promote=推销; House 55=一种产品的符号;send to=寄送 sample=样品;U.S. Homes=美国的Homes公司; Germany's Okal=德国的Okal公司. Pfizer=Pfizer公司;drug firm=药品公司,drug药物,firm公司; attract=吸引; drug wholesaler=药品批发商,wholesaler批发商; sponsor=发起人; trip=旅行; other event=其他活动, event事件; Gift=礼品; doctor=医生, doctors' wives=医生们的太太;shopping tour=购物旅游, tour旅行
  6. The popularity of sales promotion has grown steadily both in the United States and overseas. A survey of executives conducted by Stimulus, Canada's leading advertising journal, revealed a shift from media advertising to sales promotion. Compared with five years ago, three of five firms had moved to spend more of their advertising budget on such nonmedia alternatives as trade shows, point-of-purchase displays, and publicity. According to a POPAI (Point-of- Purchase Advertising Institute) -Du Pont study of shopping behavior in the United States, almost 70 percent of all non-food purchases in supermarkets are generated by in-store decisions. If the same decision-making pattern is prevalent outside the United States, sales promotion should prove to be just as indispensable.
6、无论是在美国还是在海外,促销活动越来越受人青睐,而且势头强劲。加拿大首屈一指的广告杂志Stimulus对公司经理们的一项调查表明,他们已从媒体广告转向促销活动。同五年前相比,有五分之三的公司开始在广告预算中增加对非媒体手段的投入,如交易展销、买点展示和宣传。根据买点广告机构和杜邦公司对美国人购物行为所作的一项调查。在超市里所有非食品购买行为中,几乎有70%源自顾客在超市内的临时决定。如果这种购物方式能在美国以外的其他地方盛行开来,那么,将证明促销活动同样是必不可少的。
  6. The popularity of Sales promotion=促销的流行,popularity流行; grown steadily=稳步增长,steadily稳定地; both in the United State and overseas=无论是在美国还是在海外,oversea海外的; survey=调查;executive=经理; conducted=行为; Stimulus=Stimulus 公司; Canada's leading advertising journal=加拿大首屈一指的广告杂志,leading 第一位,journal定期刊物; reveal=显示; shift=移动; from…to…=从…到… ;media=新闻媒体;advertise=广告; Sales promotion=促销; Compare with=与…比较; three of five=五分之三; firm=公司; spend=花费; advertise budget=广告预算; such as =例如…nonmedia=非媒体; alternative=可供选择的办法; trade shows=交易展销,trade交易, show展览; point-of-purchase=买点;display=展览; publicity=宣传; According to=根据; POPAI=买点广告机构,Point-of- Purchase买点, Advertising广告,Institute协会;Du Pont=杜邦公司; study of shopping behavior=购物行为的调查,behavior 行为,study研究; 70 percent[n.百分之…] of all non-food purchases=所有非食品购买中的70%,purchases购买; supermarket=超市; generat=发生; in-store=在商店; decision决定; the same =一样;decision-making pattern=决定模式;pattern式样; prevalent流行的;outside=在..之外; Sales promotion=促销; prove to=证明; just as=同样; indispensable=必不可少的,
  7. Sales promotion is effective when a product is first introduced to a market. It also works well with existing products that are highly competitive and standardized, especially when they are of low unit-value and have high turnover. Under such conditions, sales promotion is needed to gain that “extra” competitive advantage. A Japanese firm created a great deal of excitement in Thailand by including game cards in its detergent boxes, and consumers could not resist buying more and more in search of the winning cards, Likewise, most gas stations in Thailand at one time gave free washcloths with a gas fill-up. Middlemen were also allowed to participate in the sales-promotion program. Stores were informed of the display, and their salespeople or sales clerks were made aware of the program and benefits.
7、当某种产品首次进入一个市场时,促销活动是相当有效的。如果产品本身极具竞争力,而且比较规范,那么,促销也适用于现有产品。尤其是如果这种产品单价较低而且流通量大。在这种条件下,就需要促销以赢得额外的竞争优势。一家日本公司通过将游戏纸牌装在其洗涤剂盒子中,结果在泰国引起轰动效应。消费者情不自禁,越买越多,希望得到胜张。与此类似,在泰国大多数加油站,顾客每加一次油,即可免费得到一块清洗布。中间商同样可以参加促销活动。经销商店及时了解产品展示信息,商店的销售人员和职员对这些活动及其利益一清二楚。
Sales promotion=促销; effective=有效的; first introduced to a market=首次进入一个市场,introduced to引进…;work with=对...起作用;well=也; existing products=现有产品;highly=高地; competitive=很强的竞争力,competitive竞争的; standardized=规范; especially=尤其] ; of low unit-value=具有单价较低,of具有; high turnover=大流通量;Under such conditions=在这种条件下,such这种, condition条件; Sales promotion=促销; gain=赢得; extra=额外的; competitive=竞争的; advantage=优势; created=创造; a great deal=大量;excitement=刺激;Thailand=泰国; include=放入;game card=游戏纸牌;detergent=洗涤剂; consumers=消费者; resist忍得住; more and more=越来越多 in search of=搜寻; the winning cards=胜张, Likewise=同样地; gas station=加油站;Thailand=泰国; one time=每次;free=免费 washcloth=浴巾; gas=汽油; fill-up=装满. Middlemen=中间商;allow=允许;participate=参与; the sales-promotion program=促销活动,program=行动方案;; Store=商店;were informed of=接到...的通知,inform通知; display=展览salespeople=售货员; sale clerk=销售职员,clerk办事员; be aware of=知道 ; program=行动方案; benefit=利益








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